TIIE WAE OF TERROR: An ANALYs OF TIm REPRESENTATION OF RECEI{T TERRORIST ATTACS IN THREE INDONETION FTEWS PT]BLICATIONS WITHIN A CONTEXT OF CI]LTI]RAL AND SOSIAL TRANSITION

Prayudi, (2010) TIIE WAE OF TERROR: An ANALYs OF TIm REPRESENTATION OF RECEI{T TERRORIST ATTACS IN THREE INDONETION FTEWS PT]BLICATIONS WITHIN A CONTEXT OF CI]LTI]RAL AND SOSIAL TRANSITION. PhD thesis, UPN Veteran Yogyakarta.

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    Abstract

    Mass media and issue of terrorism are inseparable. The representation of terrorism in the Indonesian mass media is the result of a complex construction process which incorporates cultural, political economic and industrial factors. The most recent and publicly extant examples of terorism in Indonesia have been associated with the more militant components of radical Islam. Some well publicized terorist attacks have been occurring since the fall of President Suharto's New Order regirne in 1998. This research looks at how the meaning of news representation of issue of terrorism in three Indonesian news publications has been constructed and how the meaning of issue of terorism in three Indonesian news publications. The objective of the thesis is to define and analyse the construction of meaning of the news representation of current terrorist attacks in three news publications in Indonesia. Analysis will be focused on the cultural or historical, political and industrial factors that contribute to the production of news. In particular, the analysis will focus on the 2002 Bali bombing the 2003 JW Mariott Hotel bombing and the 2004 Australian Embassy bombing. The euphoria that has emeiged around the Reformasi and ref,ormation era has given the lndonesian media institutions freedom to repoft any issues rvithout fear of being banned by the government. Nonetheless, the lndonesian news media are influenced by their cultural, political, and industrial factors when reporling potentially divisive issues like terrorism and religion. Within news media institutions, the interplay of these various factors contributes to the way news media represents issue of terrorism. This study employed a cultural studies rnethodology to understand how media institutions and their professional journalists represent issues of terrorism. The approach emphasizes the interplay between lived experience, text or discourses, and the social context or the interplay between audience, text and producers. Data was gathered from news itenrs in three national publications. Data analysis techniques included contextualism and textual analysis. The techniques were used to analyse why the media represent the issue of recent tefforist attacks in Indonesia with particular orientation. The analysis was especially emphasized on the cultural, political and industrial context of the representation. i looked at why and how the issue of terrorism came to surface and its relation to radical Islartricisnr in Indonesia and Southeast Asia, how it atfected Indonesian social and political conditions and how the Indonesian government policy dealt with the issue. At the same time, I also looked at how all this conditions affect the way Indonesian news publications report the issue which at the same time have their own industrial background in reporting sensitive issues like terrorism. Thus, the contextual and textual modes of analysis deployed forms of 'empirical' research which are constituted through a close reading of texts, historical analysi s and direct i nterviews with professional journal ists. Research analyses indicate that the three news publications under study played their role as a story teller of the issue of terrorism. They had incorporated cultural, political as well as industrial factors in the construction the news of terrorism. Despite playing role as the storyteller, different vision, mission, and contexts of the three news media had lesulted in the ditTerent editorial policies in representing issue of terorism. The news representation I of three terrorist events in the Jakarta Post had been constructed mostly within the political perspective. This can be seen fronr the representation of government policy on terrorism and national security, how the Indonesian government managed the acts of terror and how the Indonesian society accepted the facts that terrorism did exist in Indonesia. In general, the Post showed its support toward the issue of regulations to cambat temorism, but at the same time warned the government to carefully implement the regulations as these may against human rights and the 1945 Constitutions. On another issue, the Post criticized lack of intelligence coordination among government authority agencies that had lead to the acts of terror to occur. Conflict of intellligence and counter-terrorisrn roles between the police and the military (TNI) became the main fbcus of the Post representation. Meanlvhile, the last representation of the issue indicates how the Post had brought to sr.rrf'ace the issue of the existence of terrorist in Indonesia and the importance of dialogue on the issue of fundamentalism and radicalism in Islam. On the contrary, with the vision to be an 'information controlling and Islamic advocating media', Sabili, the second media under study, clearly places itself as a news media that defends the interests of Islam and Muslinr. lts representation of terrorism issue described the vision and rnission of the news magazine. In doing so, Sabili tended to intervielv nelvs sources that principally explained Islarn was not identical with radicalism or violence. Consequently, it represented the bombing events as western (American) government scenario to shape global opinion that lndonesia in particular and South East Asia in gerreral had become a temorist haven. Imply in this representation was Sabili's criticisrn torvard lndonesian government for its rveak attitude and the tendency to follow the will of lvestern (American) governments in return fbr international aid. ln another issue, Sabili denied the existence af Jemaah Islamiyah, lt is not because of the support of this news rnagazine torvard the radical group, but the impacts that led to the capture of Islarnic activists that Sabili opposed. Further, it also warned public of the possibilities to create conf'lict within Islamic society as in the New Order regime. Meanrvhile, last representation of the issue signities Sabili's political as well as humanitarian perspectives. lt prinbipally criticised the implernentation of antiterrorism act that had violated human rights. lt lvorried that the act would be systematically used to capture lslamic activists. Fufther, Sctbiti gave attention on the impact of the arrest toward the families. Meanwhile, in the analysis of the third news media, Tempo's representation of terrorism had been delivered through a professional practice ofjournalism. It stayed neutral from the conflict. It principally adopted fair, check and balanced, cover both sides' principles. Actuality, in-depth and accuracy in repofting represent Tempo's strong and independent editorial poticy. The representation of three bornbing events in Tempo 's news magazine had been constructed trough cultural and political perspectives. This can be analysed from the representation of the description of the bombings, the investigation process conducted by the police. and the disclosure of the terrorist network. Principally, Tempo's representation of the description of the bombings from humanitarian perspective was meant to awaken its readers and public in general that no groups rvere allolved to use violence against other people to reach their goals. Through this representation, Tentpo criticised the Indonesian governnrent seriousness irr combating terrorism as bornbing attacks kept happening rvithin the country. Tempo also gave attention to the investigation process conducted by the police. The selection of this issue was to inform public of the progress the police had done regarding the acts of terror. Imply in the representation was the way Megawati's government handled the 2002 Bali bombing had contributed to the decrease o.f her reputation-in the 2004 general election. This was signified by the quapel between vice president and minister of defence. In the last representafion, tempo caiefully reported the suspected terrorist network, Jemaah Islamiyoh. It was rneant to avoid a judgenrent as if lslam-as the dominant religion embraced by Indonesian society-identical with terrorism activities. Tempo attempted to inform as welt as to educate public that there were groups within society that had misused Islamic values for their acts of terror. Thus, Tempo3 vision to be 'the guidance in the process of enhancing people,s freedom of thought and expression and to build society that appreciates smartness ind difference of opinion' was realised through the publication of reriabre news media. In general, the three news media had represented the issue of tenorism by taking i6to account cultural, political, and industrial factors. Within each of these news rnedia. these faptofii are treated differently. consequently, there are contfast representations o1. the tefforism events.

    Item Type: Thesis (PhD)
    Subjects: 300 Ilmu Sosial
    Divisions: Fakultas Ilmu Sosial dan Ilmu Politik > Komunikasi
    Depositing User: Muji Isambina
    Date Deposited: 16 Jun 2011 08:55
    Last Modified: 16 Jun 2011 08:55
    URI: http://repository.upnyk.ac.id/id/eprint/520

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